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|Motorcycle accidents are a well-known leading cause of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Together with auto accidents Kentrell Brice Youth Jersey , they are the single largest cause of brain injury in the United States. One out of every five motorcycle accidents results in head or neck injuries, which account for most motorcycle fatalities. And partly because drivers often don't see motorcyclists or yield them the right-of-way, motorcyclists are at higher risk of an accident than drivers. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration estimated that, per mile traveled in 2003, a motorcyclist was 32 times more likely to die in an accident than a passenger in a car.
Motorcyclists, even those who wear helmets Dean Lowry Youth Jersey , are most likely to sustain non-penetrative injuries to the front of the head, damaging parts of the brain responsible for speech and higher functions. Those without helmets may also be susceptible to a penetrating brain injury, in which an object enters the head and skull, damaging the soft tissue of the brain itself. Helmets Essential to Prevent Traumatic Brain Injury
Study after study shows that the best way to prevent a traumatic brain injury is to wear a helmet approved by the federal Department of Transportation. (Some also carry approval from the Snell Memorial Foundation, a nonprofit organization dedicated to testing the effectiveness of commercial helmets.) In January of 2006, only four states in the U.S: Colorado Kyle Murphy Youth Jersey , Illinois, New Hampshire and Iowa- had no law at all requiring motorcyclists to use helmets. Twenty-six others had limited helmet laws, usually ones that require helmets for riders who are under 18 or 21.
But even in states without strict helmet laws, riders are still strongly advised that their chances of death or serious head injury are seriously reduced by wearing a helmet. A rider's failure to equip passengers, particularly passengers who are under 21, with helmets may be considered negligent. And if the helmet is below state and federal standards Jahri Evans Youth Jersey , poorly fitted, old or has been through a previous accident, that helmet is not safe, may not be legal and will not prevent death, brain damage or another traumatic injury. Other Brain Injury Risks for Motorcyclists
Even though proper equipment significantly cuts down a motorcyclist's chance of a traumatic brain injury, it is not foolproof. Riders must stay aware of other factors that could lead to a motorcycle accident involving a traumatic brain injury. Motorcyclists are advised to check their bikes and equipment for problems before each ride; adjust the suspension and tire pressure of the motorcycle when carrying a passenger; wear boots Davon House Youth Jersey , gloves and other protective gear; and adjust for changing road conditions.
The cost of an accident that causes traumatic brain injury can be severe. A traumatic brain injury causes brain damage that can range from a mild concussion to severe, life-changing disabilities such as trouble communicating, personality changes, schizophrenia, or even a coma. Because the brain cannot heal itself the way other organs do, these are often lifelong problems that cost tens of thousands of dollars to treat. They also place a severe emotional and financial burden on the injured person's family members. If you or someone you know is the victim of a motorcycle accident causing traumatic brain injury Vince Biegel Youth Jersey , it is essential to seek out an expert in accidents and TBI who can help reconstruct the accident and secure compensation.
WASHINGTON, Feb. 19 (Xinhua) -- Much of the damage that ultraviolet radiation (UV) does to skin occurs hours after sun exposure, and this delayed reaction appears to be due to the skin pigment melanin, a U.S. study said Thursday.
Melanin, which gives skin its color, is usually thought of as a protective pigment Jamaal Williams Youth Jersey , blocking the UV radiation that damages DNA and contributes to skin cancer.
But there was also evidence from studies suggesting that melanin was associated with skin cell damage.
In the new study, Douglas Brash, professor of the Yale University, and his colleagues first exposed mouse and human melanocytes, the cells that make the melanin, to radiation from a UV lamp.
The radiation caused a type of DNA damage known as a cyclobutane dimer (CPD) Montravius Adams Youth Jersey , in which two DNA "letters" attach and bend the DNA, preventing the information it contains from being read correctly.
The researchers were surprised to find that the melanocytes not only generated CPDs immediately but continued to do so more than three hours after UV exposure ended. Cells without melanin generated CPDs only during the UV exposure.
The results, published in the U.S. journal Science, showed that melanin had both carcinogenic and protective effects.
"If you look inside adult skin, melanin does protect against CPDs. It does act as a shield," said Brash. "But it is doing both good and bad things."
The researchers next tested the extent of damage that occurred after sun exposure by preventing normal DNA repair in mouse samples. They found that half of the CPDs in melanocytes were " dark CPDs" -- CPDs created in the dark.
Further research showed that the UV light activated two enzymes that combined to "excite" an electron in melanin Josh Jones Youth Jersey , and that the energy generated from this process, known as chemiexcitation, in turn, causes the same DNA damage that sunlight caused in daytime.
Chemiexcitation has previously been seen only in lower plants and animals.
While noting that news of the carcinogenic effect of melanin is disconcerting, the researchers also said that the slowness of chemiexcitation may allow time for new preventive tools, such as an "evening-after" sunscreen designed to block the energy transfer.
GEORGE MICHAEL died as a result of heart and liver disease Kevin King Youth Jersey , a coroner has confirmed.
The pop star was suffering from dilated cardiomyopathy with myocarditis and fatty liver, according to Darren .